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Kia Ōrite - Code Of Practice

New Zealand Code of Practice for an Inclusive Tertiary Education Environment for Students with Impairments

Forward

Equity of access and opportunity is an important part of the vision for our tertiary education system, outlined in the Tertiary Education Strategy 2002/07. The Strategy sets an objective for people with impairments to be achieving skills and qualifications in greater numbers. The Disability Strategy 2001 establishes a similar vision: to improve post-compulsory education options for people with impairments.

When the government released the Tertiary Education Strategy 2002/07 it was envisaged that providers, communities and government agencies would work together to create the vision that the Strategy outlined.

I'm delighted that the tertiary sector group ACHIEVE has initiated and developed a Code of Practice to address issues for people with impairments. Congratulations to ACHIEVE for their work on Achieving Equity: New Zealand Code of Practice for an Inclusive Tertiary Environment for Students with Impairments. ACHIEVE's knowledge, experience and understanding of issues for people with impairments undertaking tertiary study, is reflected in this document. I note also that the Code has been subject to wide consultation throughout New Zealand and that the Ministry of Education and the Tertiary Education Commission were involved in its development.

The benefits of tertiary education need to be available to people with impairments. Tertiary education enhances peoples' lives by contributing to their general knowledge and understanding, increasing their incomes and standard of living and widening their experiences and interests.

This Code of Practice is a significant new resource. Providers will undoubtedly find it useful in working towards equity of access and opportunity for their students with impairments. It will help in developing further the kinds of tertiary environments that enable people with impairments to achieve to their full potential.

My colleague Hon Ruth Dyson and I commend the Code of Practice to you and hope that tertiary providers will take it up as you assist people with impairments to participate successfully in tertiary education.

Hon Steve Maharey, Associate Minister of Education (Tertiary Education)

Hon Ruth Dyson, Minister for Disability Issues

 

Part 1 - INTRODUCTION

1.1 Preamble

People with impairments have a right to education and to realise their potential.

Tertiary education enhances our lives and our society. A fully inclusive tertiary education system is one that recognises and values diversity and enables wide ranging participation by offering flexible learning pathways to the more than twenty percent of New Zealanders who have an impairment[1].

There has been a broad movement of change in tertiary education towards social inclusion as tertiary education providers recognise that diversity is fundamental to their successful functioning, and as they seek to reflect and shape community aspirations by ensuring social justice and equity for all members of society.

In the New Zealand Disability Strategy[2] released in 2001, the Government adopted a vision of a more inclusive society for people with impairments. Through implementing the Strategy, barriers to people with impairments participating and contributing fully to society will be removed.

The Government recognises that New Zealand's economic growth and improved social outcomes depend on equal access and equal opportunities for all learners[3]. Despite this, statistics show that people with impairments are one of the most educationally disadvantaged groups within New Zealand. It is important, therefore, that barriers to their academic achievement and participation are identified and removed.

The trend towards social inclusion and the introduction of the Special Supplementary Grant: Tertiary Students with Disabilities has seen an increase in both awareness of disability issues and the numbers of students with impairments within tertiary education. Some institutions have become more proactive in developing inclusive teaching practices, enhancing support services and improving their policies relating to students with impairments. However, the results of the 2002 'Code of Practice Consultation Survey'[4] indicate that while progress has been made, there are still a number of barriers that people with impairments confront on a daily basis in tertiary education.

The Code of Practice is designed to assist tertiary education providers to achieve a fully inclusive environment through the ongoing identification and removal of barriers in all areas of campus life. It is a tool to assist all staff within an institution in meeting their responsibilities, and is not just for those working in Disability Support Services.

For information to assist with implementation, visit the ACHIEVE website.

"Ko te teo herenga waka."
‘The stake for tying up the canoe.’

A mooring place for the canoe is a symbol for reliability. The canoe is an image for all the people on the journey.
Ngā Pēpeha a Ngā Tūpuna VUW Press 2001

 

1.2 Achieve

ACHIEVE, The National Post-Secondary Education Disability Network Incorporated, is a national network established to ensure equal opportunity and access to post-secondary education and training for people with impairments. ACHIEVE advocates and lobbies for people with a range of impairments who are transitioning into or studying in post-secondary education. It also provides members with information and opportunities to network.

 

1.3 Acknowledgements

The Code of Practice was produced with the generous assistance of many people throughout New Zealand. While ACHIEVE was instrumental in initiating and driving this project, the Code of Practice could not have been written without the support of these people.

We particularly wish to thank the Code of Practice Steering Committee, the ACHIEVE Executive Committee and Victoria Manning, the first coordinator for the project. We are grateful for their feedback and guidance offered throughout its development.

We also acknowledge the Codes of Practice from Australia and the United Kingdom that have provided both inspiration and a basis for this work.

During 2002 a survey was completed to provide a guide for the development of this code. Regional Forums were also held in the first half of 2003 to discuss and gain feedback about the 'Draft Code of Practice'. People also had the opportunity to provide individual feedback and submissions.

We wish to thank the various people and organisations who offered feedback, distributed surveys, supported the hosting of Regional Forums, and gave financial and administrative support. This includes various tertiary education providers and the Ministry of Education. The Code of Practice could not have been produced without this generous assistance.

Ava Gibson, Chairperson, Code of Practice Steering Committee

Grant Cleland, Project Coordinator, Code of Practice

1.4 The Relationship between The Code of Practice and the Treaty of Waitangi

Central to the Treaty partnership and the implementation of Treaty principles is a common understanding that any strategies for Māori associated with the Code of Practice should be developed and implemented in partnership with Māori. This should also occur in good faith with mutual respect, co-operation and trust.[5]

The 2001 New Zealand Disability Survey shows that twenty percent of Māori had an impairment of some kind.[6] The Steering Committee overseeing the development of the Code of Practice acknowledges the importance of involving Māori in consultation processes and are aware of the potential shortcomings of the brief consultation process necessary for the development of the Code of Practice.

We view the Code of Practice as an evolving document with ongoing development and implementation processes, which will need to occur in partnership with Māori. This includes tertiary education providers consulting with Māori as they use the Code of Practice to create an inclusive environment for all people with impairments.

 

Part 2 - SETTING THE SCENE

2.1 Purpose of the Code of Practice

Key Objective:
To assist tertiary education providers create a fully inclusive tertiary education environment for students with impairments within New Zealand.

Aims:
The Code of Practice aims to:

  1. Set out 'Best Practice' standards that describe the outcomes needed to create a fully inclusive tertiary education environment for students with impairments.
  2. Assist tertiary education providers to:
    1. Understand the status of people with impairments in tertiary education in New Zealand.
    2. Evaluate their progress towards an inclusive environment.
    3. Identify potential barriers to participation and achievement that people with impairments face.
    4. Improve tertiary outcomes for students with impairments.
    5. Be aware of policy and legal obligations relating to people with impairments in tertiary education.


2.2 Definitions of Disability

Various definitions of disability exist. The definition used in The New Zealand Disability Strategy is different from that used by Statistics New Zealand for the 2001 Disability Survey and in the Human Rights Act, 1993.

The New Zealand Disability Strategy states that, “disability is not something individuals have. What individuals have are impairments. They may be physical, sensory, neurological, psychiatric, intellectual or other impairments.” Instead, “disability is the process which happens when one group of people create barriers by designing a world only for their way of living, taking no account of the impairments other people have”.[7]

For the purposes of the Code of Practice we have used the New Zealand Disability Strategy definition of disability[8]. In this document we will refer to people or students with impairments. This includes people with permanent impairments, those with impairments resulting from long or short-term injury or illness, the Deaf community and people with other impairments such as learning disability, neurological or cognitive difficulties, mental illness and other more hidden impairments.

 

2.3 Scope of this Code of Practice

Students with impairments are involved in the full range of tertiary courses at all levels of learning. This includes foundation courses, life skills, and vocational and academic programmes. The Code of Practice is intended to have an impact on the participation and achievement of students with impairments at all of these levels of learning and at all types of tertiary providers, including universities, polytechnics, private training establishments, wananga and colleges of education.

It is imperative that students with impairments are able to access the full tertiary experience; therefore this Code of Practice also applies to the wider aspects of tertiary life, such as the social, cultural and recreational areas.

It should also be noted that the implementation of many of the Best Practice Standards would also have a positive impact on staff, particularly those staff that have or develop impairments.

 

2.4 The Rationale for Using the Code of Practice

New Zealand needs to develop the skills and abilities of its entire population, including people with impairments. Students with impairments are as valuable as all other students and have the ability to contribute to the community through education.

The Code of Practice can assist tertiary education providers to:

  1. Improve tertiary education outcomes for students with impairments.
  2. Meet their specific obligations relating to students with impairments under the New Zealand Disability Strategy, the Tertiary Education Strategy, STEPS, and Charters and Profiles.
  3. Avoid the possibility of an institution or organization receiving a disability-related complaint under the Human Rights Act or other legislation, through the proactive identification and removal of barriers to participation and achievement.
  4. Review services for students with impairments thus enabling them to get the greatest value out of resources.

 

Part 3 - BEST PRACTICE STANDARDS FOR CREATING A FULLY INCLUSIVE ENVIRONMENT[9], [10],[11],[12],[13]

The next section is divided into a number of topic areas covering different aspects of an inclusive environment. It is important that all topic areas are given attention.

Under each topic area there is:

  1. A vision of an inclusive environment for that area.
  2. A set of Best Practice Standards indicating the outcomes required.
  3. Some ideas and examples to amplify the reader's understanding of the standards.

 

Kia Orite - Best Practice Standards 3.1
Kia Orite - Best Practice Standards 3.2
Kia Orite - Best Practice Standards 3.3
Kia Orite - Best Practice Standards 3.4
Kia Orite - Best Practice Standards 3.5
Kia Orite - Best Practice Standards 3.6
Kia Orite - Best Practice Standards 3.7
Kia Orite - Best Practice Standards 3.8
Kia Orite - Best Practice Standards 3.9
Kia Orite - Best Practice Standards 3.10
Kia Orite - Best Practice Standards 3.11
Kia Orite - Best Practice Standards 3.12
Kia Orite - Best Practice Standards 3.13

 

Part 4 - THE POLICY AND LEGAL FRAMEWORK FOR USING THE CODE OF PRACTICE

This section provides an overview of the status of people with impairments in tertiary education, the barriers to participation and achievement that many face, and the policy and legal framework for using the Code of Practice.

For consistency of language throughout this document, we continue to use 'people or students with impairments'. The documents referred to in this section use a mixture of 'people with disabilities' and 'disabled people'.

Kia Orite - Policy and Legal Framework 4.1
Kia Orite - Policy and Legal Framework 4.2
Kia Orite - Policy and Legal Framework 4.3
Kia Orite - Policy and Legal Framework 4.4

 

Part 5 - APPENDICES

5.1 Glossary [36]

Access - Ability to join and participate in all facets of life in tertiary education institutions or organisations (e.g. access to: buildings, programmes and facilities; courses; educational materials and other relevant social/cultural information; ceremonial events; communication access).

Accommodations - Adaptations that remove barriers to enable equal participation. These are based on the premise that students with impairments should be neither disadvantaged nor advantaged relative to other students. Students can be treated differently if it is achieving equity.

Assistive Technology - Equipment or software designed or modified to enable people with impairments to meet their information, communication and mobility needs.

Barriers - Social and environmental processes preventing or disadvantaging access, participation and achievement of students with impairments in tertiary education.

Best Practice Standards - Steps that a tertiary education institution or organisation can take to create a fully inclusive tertiary education environment for people with impairments. These may be enhanced through quality reviews.

Codes of Practice - A guide for tertiary education providers detailing what is expected of their inclusion of students with impairments. Similar codes are found at the following websites:

Australian Code of Practice
British Code of Practice

Equitable Learning Environment - Reasonable accommodations have been made to enable students with impairments to participate in a course and compete on equal terms with other students.

Equity - Principles that ensure fairness to people with impairments in providing the opportunity for them to participate in and successfully complete studies in tertiary education.

Flexible Delivery - Adoption of a range of teaching strategies in a variety of learning environments to cater for differences in learning styles, learning interests and needs, and variations in learning opportunities.

Inclusive Educational and Learning Environment - One in which diversity among students is valued and procedures are implemented to facilitate equitable access, participation and outcomes for all students.

Staff - Everyone employed by the tertiary institution or organisation, including teaching staff consisting of lecturers, tutors, teachers, instructors, workplace trainers, assessors and mentors.

Student - A person who is enrolled by a tertiary institution or organisation to participate in any educational activity.

Tertiary Education Provider - A tertiary education provider means all or any of the following, but does not include an industry training organisation:

  1. an institution (i.e. a university, polytechnic, college of education or wananga);
  2. a registered private training establishment;
  3. a government training establishment; and
  4. any organisation that provides tertiary education and receives government education funding ( a community education provider for example).

 

Part 5 - APPENDICES

5.2  References

Achieve: The National Post Secondary Education Disability Network Incorporated. (2003). New Zealand code of practice consultation survey. [Online] Retrieved 29/04/03 from (http://www.achieve.org.nz).

Department for Education and Employment. (1999a). The Disability Discrimination Act 1995. United Kingdom: Department for Education and Employment Information Card Series.

Department for Education and Employment. (April 1999b). The Disability Discrimination Act 1995: What employers need to know. United Kingdom: Department for Education and Employment.

EEO Trust. (2000). People with disability and work. Auckland, New Zealand: EEO Trust Booklet Series.

Grove, N. & Mead, S.M. ed (2001) Ngā pēpeha a ngā tūpuna. Wellington: VUW Press.

Hartley, J., O'Connor, B., Watson, R. & Power, D. (1998). Students with disabilities: Code of practice for Australian tertiary institutions. Queensland, Australia: Queensland University of Technology.

Hartley, J., O'Connor, B., Watson, R. & Power, D. (1-4 December 1998). Developing and implementing a code of practice. Paper presented at the Pathways IV - 4th National Conference of People with Disabilities in Education and Employment. Perth.

Health and Disability Commissioner's Office. (1994). Code of health and disability services consumers' rights. Auckland, New Zealand: Health and Disability Commissioner's Office Brochure.

Human Rights Commission. (2002). Making human rights work: An introductory workshop for public sector employees. Auckland, New Zealand: Human Rights Commission Training Manual.

Human Rights Commission. (October 2001). Te rito. Human Rights Commission quarterly case notes. Auckland, New Zealand: Human Rights Commission.

Human Rights Commission. (2002). Tu tikanga, Rights now! A human rights workshop for people with disabilities (Plain text version). Facilitator's handbook. Auckland, New Zealand: Human Rights Commission.

International Labour Organization. (2001). Draft code of practice on managing disability in the workplace. Geneva: International Labour Office.

Learning Unlimited. (2000). Thinking outside the circle: How to get the best out of employing people with disabilities. Wellington, New Zealand: Learning Unlimited.

Ministry of Education. (2003). Participation in tertiary education 2003. Wellington, New Zealand: Ministry of Education.

Ministry of Education. (2002). Tertiary education strategy 2002-07. Wellington, New Zealand: Ministry of Education.

Ministry of Education. (2001). Ministry of Education report on the special supplementary grants, 1999-2001. Wellington, New Zealand: Ministry of Education.

Ministry of Health. (2001). New Zealand disability strategy: Making a world of difference. Whakanui oranga. Wellington, New Zealand: Ministry of Health.

Ministry of Health. (1998). Disability in New Zealand: Overview of the 1996/97 surveys. Wellington, New Zealand: Ministry of Health.

Ministry of Justice. (2002). Non-discrimination standards for government and public sector: Guidelines on how to apply the standards and who is covered. Wellington, New Zealand: Ministry of Justice.

Standards New Zealand. (2001). Design for access and mobility: Buildings and associated facilities NZS 4121: 2001. Wellington, New Zealand: Standards New Zealand.

State Services Commission. (December 2001). Public Service as an employer of choice research project: Improving the effectiveness of recruitment and retention for policy graduates with disability in the public service. Wellington, New Zealand: State Services Commission.

Statistics New Zealand. (2002). Disability counts 2001 report. Wellington, New Zealand: Statistics New Zealand.

Statistics New Zealand. (1998). Disability counts 1998 report. Wellington, New Zealand: Statistics New Zealand.

Tertiary Education Commission. (May 2003). Statement of tertiary education priorities (STEP) and draft guidelines for charters and profiles. [Online] Retrieved 29/04/03 from (http://www.tec.govt.nz).

Tertiary Education Commission. (4 April 2003). Use of the supplementary grant TSD for support of international students with disabilities. Wellington, New Zealand: Tertiary Education Commission.

The Disability Rights Commission. (2003). Code of practice for providers of post 16 education and related services - Legal rights and requirements under the Disability Discrimination Act 1995: Part 4. [Online] Retrieved 29/04/03 from (http://www.drc.gov.uk/thelaw/practice.asp).

The Privacy Commissioner. (1998). Privacy Act 1993: Health information privacy code fact sheets. Auckland, New Zealand: The Privacy Commissioner.

The Quality Assurance Agency for Higher Education. (1999). Code of practice for the assurance of academic quality and standards in higher education. Section 3: Students with disabilities. United Kingdom: The Quality Assurance Agency for Higher Education.

The University of Waikato. (2000). Access employment: Career and job finding information for disabled students. Hamilton, New Zealand: The University of Waikato.

University of Guelph. (September 2003). Statement of universal instructional design principles. [Online] Retrieved 17/09/03 from (http://www.tss.uoguelph.ca/uid/uidprinciples.html).

University of Tasmania. (2003). The Australian disability clearinghouse on education and training. Tasmania, Australia: University of Tasmania ADCET Website (http://www.adcet.edu.au).

 

FOOTNOTES

  1. Statistics New Zealand. (2002). Disability counts 2001 report. Wellington, New Zealand: Statistics New Zealand. p. 15. [return to footnote 1 in main text]
  2. Ministry of Health. (2001). The New Zealand disability strategy: Making a world of difference Whakanui oranga. Wellington, New Zealand: Ministry of Health. [return to footnote 2 in main text]
  3. Ministry of Education. (2002). Tertiary education strategy 2002 - 07. Wellington, New Zealand: Ministry of Education. p. 44. [return to footnote 3 in main text]
  4. Achieve: The National Post Secondary Education Disability Network Incorporated. (2003). New Zealand code of practice consultation survey. [Online] Retrieved 29/04/03 from www.achieve.org.nz. [return to footnote 4 in main text]
  5. Ministry of Health. (2001). The New Zealand disability strategy: Making a world of difference Whakanui oranga. Wellington, New Zealand: Ministry of Health. p. V. [return to footnote 5 in main text]
  6. Statistics New Zealand. (2002). Disability counts 2001 report. Wellington, New Zealand: Statistics New Zealand. pp. 15-18. [return to footnote 6 in main text]
  7. Ministry of Health. (2001).'The New Zealand disability strategy: Making a world of difference. Whakanui oranga'. Wellington, New Zealand: Ministry of Health. p. 1.[return to footnote 7 in main text]
  8. We acknowledge the different viewpoints that exist with regard to the language around disability. The language we have chosen fits with the social model of disability. By referring to students with impairments, and to the interaction between the student with the impairment and the tertiary environment as creating disability, we separate out what can be changed. This is a useful tool for creating an inclusive environment. [return to footnote 8 in main text]
  9. Hartley, J., O'Connor, B., Watson, R. & Power, D. (1998). Students with disabilities: Code of practice for Australian tertiary institutions. Queensland, Australia: Queensland University of Technology. pp. 1-21. [return to footnote 9 in main text]
  10. The Quality Assurance Agency for Higher Education. (1999). Code of practice for the assurance of academic quality and standards in higher education. Section 3: Students with disabilities. United Kingdom: The Quality Assurance Agency for Higher Education. pp. 6-27. [return to footnote 10 in main text]
  11. Department for Education and Employment. (April 1999). The Disability Discrimination Act 1995: What employers need to know. United Kingdom: Department for Education and Employment. pp. 31-33. [return to footnote 11 in main text]
  12. Department for Education and Employment. (1999). The Disability Discrimination Act 1995. United Kingdom: Department for Education and Employment Information Card Series. [return to footnote 12 in main text]
  13. Disability Rights Commission. (2003). Code of practice for providers of post 16 education and related services - Legal rights and requirements under the Disability Discrimination Act 1995: Part 4. Retrieved 29/04/03 from the DRC Website. [return to footnote 13 in main text]
  14. Tertiary Education Commission. (4 April 2003). Use of the supplementary grant TSD for support of international students with disabilities. Wellington, New Zealand: Tertiary Education Commission. pp. 1-3. [return to footnote 14 in main text]
  15. Statistics New Zealand. (2002). Disability counts 2001 report. Wellington, New Zealand: Statistics New Zealand. pp. 15-18, 26, 54-55, 66. [return to footnote 15 in main text]
  16. Ministry of Health. (1998). Disability in New Zealand: Overview of the 1996/97 surveys. Wellington, New Zealand: Ministry of Health. pp. 46, 47, 50, 90, 169. [return to footnote 116 in main text]
  17. Ministry of Education. (2001). Ministry of Education Report on the special supplementary grants, 1999-2001. Wellington, New Zealand: Ministry of Education. [return to footnote 17 in main text]
  18. International Labour Organization. (2001). Draft Code of Practice on managing disability in the workplace. Geneva: International Labour Office. p. viii. [return to footnote 18 in main text]
  19. State Services Commission. (December 2001). Public service as an employer of choice research project: Improving the effectiveness of recruitment and retention for policy graduates with disability in the public service. Wellington, New Zealand: State Services Commission. [return to footnote 19 in main text]
  20. Ministry of Education. (2003). Participation in tertiary education 2003. Wellington, New Zealand: Ministry of Education. pp. 32-33. [return to footnote 20 in main text]
  21. Information about the number of students with impairments was collected by the Ministry of Education while information about the number of people with disabilities is from the 2001 New Zealand Disability Survey, by Statistics New Zealand. Because of the different survey instruments and definitions used, the participation rates are estimates only. [return to footnote 21 in main text]
  22. Achieve: The National Post Secondary Education Disability Network Incorporated. (2003). New Zealand code of practice consultation survey. [Online] Retrieved 29/04/03 from the Achieve Website. [return to footnote 22 in main text]
  23. Hartley, J., O'Connor, B., Watson, R. & Power, D. (1-4 December 1998). Developing and implementing a code of practice. Paper presented at the Pathways IV - 4th National Conference of People with Disabilities in Education and Employment. Perth. p. 1. [return to footnote 23 in main text]
  24. Ministry of Health. (2001). New Zealand disability strategy: Making a world of difference. Whakanui oranga. Wellington, New Zealand: Ministry of Health. pp. 16, 17, 20, 27. [return to footnote 24 in main text]
  25. Ministry of Education. (2002). Tertiary Education Strategy 2002 - 07. Wellington, New Zealand: Ministry of Education. pp. 1 - 47. [return to footnote 25 in main text]
  26. Tertiary Education Commission. (2002). Statement of tertiary education priorities (STEP) and draft guidelines for charters and profiles. [Online] Retrieved 29/04/03 from Tertiary Education Commission (TEC) website. [return to footnote 26 in main text]
  27. Human Rights Commission. (2002). Adapted from Tu Tikanga, Rights now! A human rights workshop for people with disabilities (Plain text version). Facilitator's handbook. Auckland, New Zealand: Human Rights Commission. pp. 30 - 117. [return to footnote 27 in main text]
  28. Human Rights Commission. (2002). Making human rights work: An introductory workshop for public sector employees. Auckland, New Zealand: Human Rights Commission Training Manual. [return to footnote 28 in main text]
  29. Ministry of Justice. (2002). Non-discrimination standards for government and public sector: Guidelines on how to apply the standards and who is covered. Wellington, New Zealand: Ministry of Justice. [return to footnote 29 in main text]
  30. Human Rights Commission. (October 2001). Te Rito. Human Rights Commission quarterly case notes. Auckland, New Zealand: Human Rights Commission. [return to footnote 30 in main text]
  31. Disability Rights Commission. (2003). Code of practice for providers of post 16 education and related services - Legal rights and requirements under the Disability Discrimination Act 1995: Part 4. [Online] Retrieved 29/04/03 from the DRC Website. [return to footnote 31 in main text]
  32. Ministry of Justice. (2002). Non-discrimination standards for government and public sector: Guidelines on how to apply the standards and who is covered. Wellington, New Zealand: Ministry of Justice. [return to footnote 32 in main text]
  33. Ministry of Justice. (2002). Non-discrimination standards for government and public sector: Guidelines on how to apply the standards and who is covered. Wellington, New Zealand: Ministry of Justice. p. 42 Section 19(2). [return to footnote 33 in main text]
  34. Privacy Commissioner. (1998). Privacy Act 1993: Health information privacy code facts sheets. Auckland, New Zealand: The Privacy Commissioner. [return to footnote 34 in main text]
  35. Health and Disability Commissioner's Office. (1994). Code of health and disability services consumers' rights. Auckland, New Zealand: Health and Disability Commissioner's Office Brochure. [return to footnote 35 in main text]
  36. Adapted from Hartley, J., O'Connor, B., Watson, R. & Power, D. (1998). Students with disabilities: Code of practice for Australian tertiary institutions. Queensland, Australia: Queensland University of Technology. pp. 22-23. [return to footnote 36 in main text]